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財務術語翻譯:讀懂三大財務報表

作者:江蘇翻譯小編(南京翻譯公司) 發布時間:2020-09-27 08:16     瀏覽量:
Profit and Loss Account(利潤表/損益表)
 
 
P&L for short, also known as Income Statement in English. The income statement reflects the company's income and expenditure over a period of time (usually one quarter, half a year and one year), and reflects the company's profitability. With the balance sheet and cash flow statement, the company's three major financial statements.
 
 
簡稱 P&L , 英 文 亦 作Income Statement損益表反映一段時間內(通常是一季、半年及一年)公司的收入與 支出狀況,反映公司的盈利能力。與 資產負債表及現金流量表合稱公司 三大財務報表。
 
 
當前國際上常用的利潤表格式有單步式和多步式兩種。單步式是將當期收入總 額相加,然後將所有費用總額相加,一次 計算出當期收益的方式,其特點是所提 供的信息都是原始數據,便於理解;多步 式是將各種利潤分多步計算求得淨利潤 的方式,便於使用人對企業經營情況和 盈利能力進行比較和分析。

 
 利潤表
 
 
Cash Flow Statement(現金流量表)
 
 
Important financial statements other than the company's balance sheet and income statement show the company's cash inflows and outflows over a period of time and explain where the changes in cash assets come from during the period. Cash flow statements generally classify cash flows into three categories: 1. Operating cash flows from operating activities, which reflect net cash inflows or outflows from sales of products and services, equal to profits plus non-cash expenses such as depreciation and amortization, and then include changes in current assets other than cash and current liabilities other than short-term loans. Reduction of current assets represents cash inflows, while reduction of current liabilities represents cash outflows; 2. Cash flow from financing activities, which reflects the cash flow of a company in financing activities such as issuing stocks or bonds, lending to banks, repaying debts or distributing dividends; 3. Cash flow from investing activities, which reflects the company's investment  or  sale  of  fixed assets. Cash flow generated.
 
 
公司資產負債表及損益表以外的重 要財務報表,顯示公司在一段時間內 現金進出的情況,解釋期間現金資產 的變動從何而來。現金流量表一般會 將現金流量歸為三大類:1.經營現金 流 (cash flow from operating activities),反映產品及服務銷售所產 生的現金流入或流出淨額,等於盈利 加上非現金費用如折舊及攤銷,再計 入現金以外的流動資產及短期貸款 以外的流動負債的變動。流動資產減 少代表現金流入,流動負債減少則代 表現金流出;2.融資現金流(cash flow from financing activities),反映公司在 發行股票或債券,向銀行貸款,還債 或派發股息等融資活動上的現金流;3.投 資 現 金 流 (cash flow from investing activities),反映公司投資或 出售固定資產所產生的現金流。
 
 
對於現金流量表需要注意,在編製該表 時采用的會計準則是收付實現製。現金 流量表的出現,主要是要反映出資產負 債表中各個項目對現金流量的影響,並 根據其用途劃分為經營、投資及融資三 個活動分類。現金流量表可用於分析一 家機構在短期內有沒有足夠現金去應付開銷。
 

現金流量表
 
 
Debt equity ratio(負債權益比率)
 
 
Debt equity ratio is used to assess the relevant risks and leverage of the relevant securities holders. The total amount of liabilities and interests reflects the strength of the financial structure of the unit under review and the degree to which the creditor's capital is protected by the owner's rights and interests. The high ratio of liabilities to equity indicates that the total capital of the audited unit is high in liabilities, so the degree of protection of liabilities to capital is weak; the low ratio of liabilities to equity indicates that the audited unit has strong financial strength, and therefore the degree of protection of liabilities to capital is high. In the broad sense of capital structure, debt-equity ratio refers to the ratio between the total debt of an enterprise and the owner's equity (shareholder's equity), also known as the property right ratio. In the narrow sense of capital structure, the debt-equity ratio refers to the ratio between the long-term debt of an enterprise and the owner's equity (shareholder's equity).
 
 
負債權益比率是指用於評估有關證券持有人的相關風險和杠杆率。反映被審單位財務結構的強弱,以及債權人的資本受到所有者權益的保障程度。負債權益比率高,說明被審單位總資本中負債資本高,因而對負債資本的保障程度較弱;負債權益比率低,則說明被審單位本身的財務實力較強,因而對負債資本的保障程度較高。在廣義的資本結構含義下,負債權益比率是指企業負債總額與所有者權益(股東權益)之間的比值,又稱為產權比率。在狹義的資本結構含義下,負債權益比率是指企業 的長期負債與所有者權益(股東權益) 之間的比值。

 
 負債權益
 
  
Dividend Cover(股息保障倍數)
  
 
The extent to which a company's dividend and/or interest payments are matched or exceeded by its earnings. Expressed as a multiple. The company's rating in the market increases as the multiple rises.
 
 
公司向股東支付股息能力的指標,由可派發股息的盈餘( 即股東應占溢利)除以股息得出。對於有穩定派息記錄的公司來說,倍數越高,市場對其評價越高。

 
Profit Margin/Rate(利潤率)

 
Profit rate is the financial ratio that reflects the profitability of a company. It is expressed as a percentage by dividing profits over a period of time by operating income. Roughly speaking, if the profit margin is 20%, it means that every 100 yuan business can earn 20 yuan. Commonly used profit margins include gross profit, net profit margin and operating profit margin. The denominator of these three ratioses is operating income. The numerator is gross profit (income minus direct cost of goods), net profit (income minus all expenses and expenses) and operating profit (gross profit minus operating expenses).
 
 
利潤率是反映公司盈利能力的財務 比率,由一段時間內的利潤除以營業收入得出,以百分比表達。粗略而言,若利潤率為 20%,代表每做 100元的生意可賺20元。
 
 
常用的利潤率包括 毛利率、淨利潤率以及營業利潤率,此三比率的分母均為營業收入,分子則分別是毛利(收入減掉貨物的直接成本)、淨利(收入減去所有的費用與支出)和營運利潤(毛利減去營業費用)。

 
Current Ratio(流動比率)

 
Liquidity ratio is a measure of a company's ability to pay short-term debt. It is derived by dividing current assets by current liabilities. Current assets include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and inventory, while current liabilities are equal to the sum of short-term loans and accounts payable. The normal range of liquidity ratio is 0.5-2.0, but we must be careful to interpret this liquidity ratio. A higher ratio may mean that the company has too much idle cash, customers are in arrears with large amounts of accounts, or the company needs a lot of inventory for its operations. Lower ratioses do not necessarily mean that companies are at risk of not being able to repay short-term debt. They may simply be based on cash payments in their industries (such as restaurants that usually have little or no accounts receivable), or their operations do not require too much inventory (such as most service companies), or customers in their industries pay more slowly (such as construction).

 
流動比率是衡量公司償付短期債務 能力的一項指標,由流動資產除以流動負債得出(流動比率=流動資產/流動負債)。流動資產包括現金及現金等價物、應收賬款和庫存,而流動負債則等於短期貸款和應付賬款之 和。流動比率的正常範圍值為 0.5~ 2.0,但解讀這個流動性比率必須謹慎。較高的比率可能意 味著公司有太多閑置現金、客戶拖欠 大筆賬款,或者公司的經營需要大量 的庫存。較低的比率並不一定意味著 公司有無法償還短期債務的風險,可 能隻是因為公司所在行業以支付現 金為標準(例如餐館通常隻有很少或 沒有應收賬款),或其經營不需要太 多的庫存(例如大多數服務業公司), 或所在行業客戶支付的速度較慢(例如建築業)。

 
EPS(每股淨盈利)

 
EPS is the abbreviation of Earnings Per Share, which refers to the after-tax profit per share of common stock, also known as "earnings per share". EPS is the final result of the company's profitability. The high earnings per share represents the high profitability of the company per unit of capital, which means that the company has some better ability -- product marketing, technical ability, management ability, etc., so that the company can use less resources to create higher profits.
 
 
EPS 是每股盈餘(英文全稱 Earnings Per Share)的縮寫,指普通股每股稅後利潤,也稱為“每股收益”。EPS 為公司獲利能力的最後結果。每股盈餘 高代表著公司每單位資本額的獲利 能力高,這表示公司具有某種較佳的 能力——產品行銷、技術能力、管理能力等等,使得公司可以用較少的資源創造出較高的獲利。
 
 
每股利潤過高的話,該公司的市盈率就(Price Earnings Ratio)會較低,反映在財務報表以及上市公司在證券交易所的年度財務報告中,會給股民該公司股價存在低估印象,對公司股價上揚有正麵影響。
 
 
BVPS(每股麵值)
 
 
Book value equals total assets minus total liabilities. Book value per share (BVPS) equals book value divided by the number of shares outstanding. It is the same as shareholders' equity. BVPS is used in the calculation of the price/book ratio (share price divided by BVPS). Price/book is the ultimate measure of how much investors think a company's assets are worth and it equals the share price divided by the BVPS. A price/book ratio should be higher than one; otherwise the market is pricing the assets below their replacement value. Companies with price/book ratioses well below one automatically become takeover targets as sector rivals will consider launching a bid for their stock rather than investing in new plant and equipment. Price/book is especially relevant for capital-intensive manufacturing firms. Service industry companies with few fixed assets typically trade at high price/book ratioses.
 
 
英文 Book value Per Share 的縮寫。賬麵淨值(book value)等同於股東權益 (shareholders' euqity),即總資產減去總負債。每股賬麵淨值等於賬麵淨值除以已發行股數。 股價除以每股賬麵淨值即得出股價淨值比(price/book ratio),這是投資者衡量公司資產價值的關鍵指標。股價淨值比若低於 1,則代表市場對公司 資 產 的 定 價 低 於 其 重 置 成 本 (replacement cost)。若股價淨值比遠 低於 1,公司通常會成為收購目標, 因為覬覦此公司資產的同業競爭者 會考慮收購這家公司的股權以取得 資產,而不是自己進行廠房和設備的 投資。股價淨值比對資本密集型的製 造業公司特別有意義。 服務業因固定資產較少,股價淨值比通常比較高。
 
股票市價高於賬麵價值越多,越是表明投資者認為這個企業有希望、有潛力,否則,說明市場不看好該企業。
 

Minority Interest(少數股東權益)
 
 
An important but non-controlling outside ownership stake in a company or subsidiary.  Also used to describe the share of a parent company's net profits or net assets that are attributable to those minority shareholders in partially-owned subsidiaries.
 
 
在一家公司中,不為控股股東所持有 的股權稱為少數股東權益,通常合共不會超過股權的 50%。 在集團財務報表上,資產負債表上的少數股東權益代表在集團的子公司中持少數股權的股東應占的淨資產,損益表上的少數股東權益代表子公司中的少數股東應占的淨利。
 
 
Working Capital(營運資本)

 
Working Capital usually refers to net working capital and is the resource that a company can use to finance day-to-day operations. It is calculated by taking current liabilities from current assets.營運資金等於流動資產減去流動負 債,是衡量公司能動用多少流動資產 來改善營運或擴充業務的一個指標。
 
 
Earnings Before Interest and Tax(息稅前利潤)
 

The profit without deducting interest and income tax, that is, the profit before paying income tax without considering interest. It can also be called pre-interest and pre-tax profit. Interest and  pre-tax profit, as its name implies, refers to the profit before interest and income tax are paid.
 
 
無論企業營業利潤多少,債務利息和優 先股的股利都是固定不變的。當息稅前利潤增大時,每一元盈餘所負擔的固定 財務費用就會相對減少,這能給普通股 股東帶來更多的盈餘。
 
 
ROE Return on Equity (每股收益)
 
 
The rate of return on net assets, also known as the rate of return on equity/net value/rate of return on equity/rate of return on equity/profit on equity/profit on equity/profit on equity/profit on net assets, is the percentage of net profit and average shareholder's equity. It is the percentage rate of company's after-tax profit divided by net assets. This index reflects the level of return on equity of shareholders and is used to measure the company's use of its own assets. Capital efficiency. The higher the index value, the higher the return of investment. This index reflects the ability of self-owned capital to obtain net income.

 
淨資產收益率 ROE,淨資產收益率又稱股東權益報酬率/淨值報酬率/權益報酬率/權益利潤率/淨資產利潤率,是淨利潤與平均股東權益的百分比,是公司稅後利潤除以淨資產得到的 百分比率,該指標反映股東權益的收益水平,用以衡量公司運用自有資本的效率。指標值越高,說明投資帶來的收益越高。該指標體現了自有資本獲得淨收益的能力。
 
 
Weighted Average Cost of Capital(加權平均資本成本)
 

Weighted Average Cost of Capital. WACC is used to measure whether a potential investment will generate an adequate return. It is the cost of debt and equity, weighted by their relative contribution to overall costs both in the proportion of the funding and the cost of the related interest or dividend payments.
 
WACC 代表公司整體平均資金成本,可用來衡量一個項目是否值 得投資;項目的回報必 須不低於WACC。 計算 WACC 時,先算出構 成公司資本結構的各個項目如普通 股、優先股、公司債及其他長期負債各自的資金成本或要求回報率,然後 將這些回報率按各項目在資本結構中的權重加權,即可算出。
 

計算方法為每種資本的成本乘以占總資本的比重,然後將各種資本得出的數目加起來
 
WACC=(E/V)×Re+(D/V)×Rd×(1-Tc)
 
其中:WACC=Weighted Average Cost of Capital(加權平均資本成本)
 
Re =  股本成本
 
Rd =  債務成本
 
E = 公司股本的市場價值
 
D =  公司債務的市場價值
 
V = E + D
 
E/V = 股本占融資總額的百分比 D/V = 債務占融資總額的百分比 Tc =  企業稅率